For chemosynthesis

What is Chemosynthesis?

None of the above. They can turn nitrogen gas — which makes up most of our atmosphere — into nitrates that plants can use to make essential proteins.

It uses an electron transport chain to extract energy from electrons. Nitrifying bacteria takes electrons from ammonia and converts the ammonia into nitrites, and ultimately nitrates. InWilhelm Pfeffer coined the term "chemosynthesis" for the energy production by oxidation of inorganic substances, in association with autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation - what would be named today as chemolithoautotrophy.


Chemosynthesis also takes place in more familiar places. Nitrogen bacteria can usually be divided into three classes: This will be the source of the carbon in the organic molecule at the end of the process.

It ends with a transformed version of the chemical energy source on the product side. Denitrifying bacteria use nitrate compounds as their source of energy. At a later stage, it loses its mouth, and continues to survive by consuming the food produced by its internal bacteria.

The reduced version looks like this: Only archaeabacteria species can combine carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce methane. Chemosynthesis and Other Planets The ability of some chemosynthetic organisms to thrive in extreme conditions has led some scientists suggest that such life forms might exist on other planets, in environments that would not be suitable for more familiar types of life.

Chemosynthetic life forms not only provide the foundation for larger communities of organisms that consume the microbes to survive, but also form important symbiotic relationships with other organisms.

This kind of reaction involves the loss of electrons from one substance and the adding of electrons to another.


Other types of bacteria use arsenic, manganese, or even uranium as sources of electrons for their electron transport chains. The secret of nitrogen-fixing crops is that the plants themselves do not fix nitrogen: Many of the organisms that use chemosynthesis to manufacture food live in environments with extreme temperatures, pressures, salinity or other conditions that are hostile to most life.

The substance receiving the electrons — usually oxygen — is said to have been reduced, while the one supplying them has been oxidized. The equation for chemosynthesis will look different depending on which chemical energy source is used. A number of different methods have arisen, determined by the conditions, and the chemicals that are available.

Iron bacteria can actually pose a problem for water systems in iron-rich environments, because they consume dissolved metal ions in soil and water — and produce insoluble clumps of rust-like ferric iron, which can stain plumbing fixtures and even clog them up.

Which of the following is NOT true of chemosynthesis. In the process, they break these compounds down into forms that plants and animals cannot use.

After having its electrons passed through the electron transport chain, the chemical fuel source emerges in a different form. The hot water produced by hydrothermal vents is very rich in sulfides, which the microbes use for chemosynthesis, sometimes releasing methane as a byproduct.

Hydrogen sulfide gas, for example, is converted into solid elemental sulfur plus water. Some scientists believe that chemosynthesis might be used by life forms in sunless extraterrestrial environments, such as in the oceans of Europa or underground environments on Mars.

Reduction requires energy, but oxidation releases it. It has been proposed that chemosynthesis might actually have been the first form of metabolism on Earth, with photosynthesis and cellular respiration evolving later as life forms became more complex.

This shows the relative proportions of each ingredient necessary for the reaction, although it does not capture the full quantity of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide necessary to create a single sugar molecule. Once thought to be a sub-type of bacteria, modern analysis has revealed that archaeabacteria are an entirely different lineage from modern bacteria.

It ends with an organic molecule, such as a sugar, on the product side. Preliminary findings are that these bacteria subsist on the hydrogen produced by chemical reduction of olivine by seawater circulating in the small veins that permeate the basalt that comprises oceanic crust.

For example, in the soil, nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia into nitrites and nitrates, while methane-generating archaea can be found in marshes and swamps, in sewage and in the intestines of mammals. Nitrates are essential for many ecosystems because most plants need them to produce essential amino acids.

Oct 14,  · Chemosynthesis is a process certain organisms use to obtain energy for the production of food, akin to photosynthesis, but without the use of sunlight. The energy comes from the oxidization of inorganic chemicals that the organisms find in their environment.

Chemosynthesis Definition. Chemosynthesis is the conversion of inorganic carbon-containing compounds into organic matter such as sugars and amino acids. Chemosynthesis uses energy from inorganic chemicals to perform this task.

Chemosynthesis is the use of energy released by inorganic chemical reactions to produce food. Chemosynthesis is at the heart of deep-sea communities, sustaining life in absolute darkness, where sunlight does not penetrate.

chemosynthesis [kē′mō-sĭn ′ thĭ-sĭs] The formation of organic compounds using the energy released from chemical reactions instead of the energy of sunlight. In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.

Seep life is driven not by photosynthesis (where plants use sunlight to power the food web) but chemosynthesis, whereby single-celled organisms use methane and hydrogen sulfide to fuel a gas-powered food web.

For chemosynthesis
Rated 3/5 based on 58 review
Chemosynthesis - Wikipedia